- The Information or Cybernetic theory of communication, Shannon and Weaver Bell Laboratories (1949).
- Systems theory, links other theories together. Advantage is that you can switch between frames of reference.
- The Phenomenological tradition, the process of knowing through direct experience. The process of interpretation is central. Communication seen as an extension of the nervous system.
Three levels of potential communication problems
- Technical - accuracy/compatibility.
- Semantic - precision of language.
- Effectiveness - does the message effect behaviour.
Audiences and Social Class
- National Readership Survey
- Upper Middle Class
- Middle Class
- Skilled Working Class
- Working Class
- Intermediate occupation
- Small employers
- Lower supervisory and technical
- Semi routine and routine
- Never worked
- Main audience categories: individuals, adults, men, women, housewives etc.
- Semantics - addresses what a sign stands for.
- Syntactics - the relationships among signs. Part of a larger system referred to as codes.
- Pragmatics - studies the practical use and effects of signs.